The overall responsibility for policy development, implementation and management of Kenya’s forests and environment belongs to the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, created via Executive Order No.1 of 2018.
The Ministry’s mandate includes the following:
i. National Environment Policy and Management;
ii. Forestry Development Policy and Management;
iii. Development of re-afforestation and agro-forestry;
iv. Restoration of strategic water towers;
v. Protection and conservation of the natural environment;
vi. Pollution control;
vii. Lake Victoria Management Programme;
viii. Restoration of Lake Naivasha basin;
ix. Kenya Meteorological Department;
x. Kenya meteorological training;
xi. Conservation and protection of wetlands; and
xii. Climate change affairs.
Review of key data of the sector
Kenya’s environment and natural resource base continues to face pressure from human activities and the effects of climate change, resulting in environmental degradation and depletion.
The Government in FY 2019-2020 continued to institute and enforce policy and legal measures that govern natural resources exploitation, management and conservation to ensure sustainable development.
As per the National Economic Survey 2020, overall expenditure on water and related services is anticipated to grow by 47.3 percent from Sh31.1 billion in 2018-19 financial year to Sh45.8 billion in FY 2019-20.
The area under Government forest plantation rose from 141,600 hectares in 2018 to 147,600 hectares in 2019, but the value of produce declined by 5.5 percent from Sh30.8 billion in 2018 to Sh29.1 billion in the review period.
The increase in forest plantations followed the ban on forest logging imposed during the year. The area planted during the period under review was 7,200 hectares, a decline from the 9,200 hectares realised in 2018.
Sale of timber from Government forests dropped from 144,200 true cubic metres in 2018 to 10,700 true cubic metres in 2019. The sale of softwood timber declined by 29,400 true cubic metres while hardwood timber sale fell to 9,200 true cubic metres, down from 113,300 true cubic metres in the previous year.
As a result of the moratorium placed on logging in Government forests, the sale of fuel wood and charcoal declined by 78.1 percent while sale of power poles declined from 29,200 poles in 2018 to 13,200 poles in the review period.
The survey notes that the fishing sector recorded a 7.8 percent decline in earnings to Sh23.5 billion in 2019, from Sh25.5 billion in 2018 due to falling volumes of fish landed. During the usual long rains season (March to May), Kenya experienced a prolonged dry season.
The overall share of the environment and natural resources sector to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) during the review period remained at 3.2 percent.
The fishing and aquaculture sub-sector grew by 11.9 percent from Sh43.6 billion in 2018 to Sh48.8 billion in 2019. Fish farming accounted for 12.8 percent of the country’s fish output in 2019.
The total revenue generated from the fisheries sector decreased by 7.4 percent from Sh25.6 billion in 2018 to Sh23.7 billion in 2019. Earnings from freshwater fish landing declined from Sh21 billion in 2018 to Sh19 billion in 2019. However, earnings from marine landing increased by 2.2 percent from Sh4.6 billion in 2018 to Sh4.7 billion in 2019.
Similarly, forestry, logging and the water supply sectors grew by 9.3 percent and 7.9 percent, respectfully, in the review period.
The Government worked with other stakeholders to increase access to through-drilling of boreholes and maintenance of modest water purification points across the country, whose number was expected to increase by eight from 315 in 2018-19 to 323 in 2019-2020.
The number of boreholes was expected to increase by 22.1 percent from 15,418 in 2018 to 18,828 in 2019, with the private sector accounting for the majority (88 percent) of the total boreholes in 2019-20.
Spending on water development was projected to increase by 57.3 percent to Sh33.5 billion in the year under review, up from Sh21.3 percent the year before.
The National Water Conservation and Pipeline Corporation (NWCPC) allocation was also to be increased by 7.8 percent to Sh1.24 billion in 2019-20.
Key milestones for the sector in FY 2019-2020
a) Natural Forest Conservation and Management: Indigenous forests represent some of the most diverse ecosystems found in the country. They supply important economic, environmental, recreational, scientific, social, cultural and spiritual benefits. Indigenous forests are managed for biodiversity conservation, water-catchment functions together with ecotourism development and production of tangible benefits for the communities adjacent to the forests, wildlife conservation, and climate change mitigation. The Ministry strengthened policing and protection of the five major water towers; namely, Mt Kenya, Aberdare Range, Mt Elgon, Mau and Cherangani Hills, and the smaller but critical water catchment areas across the country.
Most of these forests are degraded. The Ministry is rehabilitating them through enrichment planting and, in other cases, intensifying protection to encourage natural regeneration in order to restore their ecological integrity. During the last financial year, the Ministry was able to rehabilitate 782.68Ha of degraded natural forests through enrichment planting and 157.6Ha of bamboo planting.
In addition, the Ministry took a leading role in the reclamation of 8,869 Ha of Maasai Mau Forest from illegal settlers. This area is now under intensive protection to stop any re-invasion. The repossessed forestland is currently being rehabilitated.
b) Plantation and Enterprise Development
Forest plantations are managed with the primary objective of production and supply of high quality wood to support the wood industry, which includes pulp and paper, sawn timber, transmission poles, composite wood products, furniture and joinery, building and construction, and fuel wood (which 80 percent of Kenyan households and institutions depend on). The Ministry, through the Kenya Forest Service (KFS), promotes private forest plantations development for supply of industrial round wood and as an investment and business for forestry farmers. The focus of the Ministry in this programme is on restocking the backlogs since the moratorium on harvesting is still active. During the last financial year, the Ministry restocked 6,573.53Ha of un-stocked plantation areas.
c) Farm Forestry Development: Farm forestry is the planting of trees in farms, and it has several positive environmental effects. They include watershed protection, enhancement of the microclimate, and carbon sequestration. Forests under private ownership play a significant role in the provision of forest goods and services to supplement supply from State forests while also generating substantial incomes to households. To achieve the national forest cover target of 10 percent of land area, major afforestation efforts will have to be made in community and private lands. During 2018-2019 financial year, the ministry supported establishment of 17,558.4Ha of commercial forests.
d) Ecotourism development: The country’s forests are rich in plant and wildlife biodiversity, in addition to having numerous attractive features including panoramic views, lakes, craters, waterfalls, caves and hills. Consequently, the Ministry collaborates with different stakeholders to develop responsible eco-tourism products like eco-lodges, tree houses, campsites, nature trails and canopy walkways.
e) Water towers rehabilitation, conservation and management: The country has four major water towers in the Mau complex, Cherangani Hills, Mt Elgon, Aberdare Ranges and Mt Kenya forests. Other gazetted water towers are found in Marmanet Forest, Loita Hills, Chyulu Hills, Huri Hills, Kirisia Hills, Mathews Range, Mt Kipipiri, Mt Kulal, Mt Marsabit, Mt Njiru, Ndotos, Nyambene Hills and Shimba Hills. On conservation and management of water towers, the ministry achieved the following in 2019:
i. Reclamation of 21,000 hectares in Maasai Mau Water Tower where illegal settlers voluntary moved out.
ii. Launch of the 10 million tree-planting initiative at Maasai Mau Water Tower. Some 3.5 million seeds were dispersed using aerial seeding technology by the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) and 500,000 hectares were planted with indigenous seedlings under the adopt-a-block campaign.
iii. Some 300 hectares of degraded areas in water towers and riparian sections were rehabilitated across the country.
iv. Launched the 50-acre National Bamboo Demonstration Site at Kaptagat in Elgeiyo-Marakwet County.
v. Promoted sustainable livelihood projects like beekeeping. Educated and donated 1,000 beehives to communities living in East Mau Water Tower, Kirisia Water Tower and Nzaui Water Tower. The communities are encouraged to practise farming that is friendly to the ecosystems.
vi. Carried out assessment on the status of water towers and development of conservation management plans.
vii. Acquired equipment to monitor water towers. This will enable real time monitoring of the status of water towers.
f) Forestry Research and Development: Under this strategic delivery initiative, the Ministry achieved the following:
i. Productivity and improvement of Melia volkensii in Kenya. The Melia volkensii species is adaptable to arid and semi-arid lands (ASALSs) and is naturally found in the drylands of East Africa, including Kenya. Melia volkensii is a valuable tree, and produces durable and termite-resistant timber. It is fast growing with a rotation of 10-15 years. Towards this, the Ministry through the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI):
• Selected and geo-referenced 100-plus Melia trees for long-term genetic improvement of the species gene bank.
• Established and maintained 22 hectares of Melia clonal seed orchards in Kitui and Kibwezi for provision of improved seeds of the species, which is able to produce 500kg of seeds and 100,000 seedlings yearly.
• Established eight progeny test trials of Melia trees, demonstration plots and field days for disseminating key information to stakeholders.
• Trained over 200 improved Melia distributors, farmers and 60 extension staff, and 20 senior country and KFS staff.
• Established four farmer field schools.
• Established a Melia seed distribution unit in Kitui.
• Developed a tissue culture protocol for mass propagation of improved Melia volkensii.
• Developed a protocol for improving Melia seed germination from 20 percent to over 90 percent.
The impact of these initiatives is approximately 10,000/kg seedlings yield, translating to 320 million seedlings which could cover about 320,000 ha (at 1,000 seedlings/ha), which if successful will result in about 0.6 percent forest cover, which is a key achievement towards attainment of the 10 percent forest cover envisaged in the Kenya Vision 2030.
g) Improvement of priority plantation species: Forest plantations are a major source of timber for construction, transmission poles, pulpwood, fuel wood and non-wood products. However, the existing plantations are not able to meet the ever-increasing demand due to high population and limited land area. This, therefore, requires development of strategies to increase productivity per unit area, some of which are tree improvements of major plantation species, and conservation of genetic resources. Towards this, the following have been achieved:
i. Importation of superior improved germplasm through Camcore for use in the tree improvement programme.
ii. Selected and maintained 240 Cupressus lusitanica, 236 Pinus patula and 338 E grandis superior trees for fast growth, disease resistance and wood quality for use in establishing seed orchards.
iii. Established over 300ha of seed orchards and seed stands of C lusitanica, P patula, E grandis, Grevillea robusta and Gmelina arborea, which are able to produce 4000kg of seeds.
iv. Established ex-situ conservation measures for some key tree species in accordance with the obligations of the Convention of Biological Diversity (CBD). These initiatives have resulted in increased productivity of various plantation species by up to 40 percent, as follows: mean annual wood volume production from 35 to 60 m3 for E grandis, 20 to 30 m3 for C lusitanica and 20 to 35 for P patula per hectare per year, respectively.
h) Technologies for propagation of sandalwood: Osyris lanceolata (sandalwood) is a semi-parasitic plant that grows naturally in various ecosystems in Kenya. Sandalwood is highly valued for use in the production of essential oils, beverages and perfumes. To improve its cultivation potential, KEFRI initiated a sandalwood propagation research project. Towards this initiative, key outputs realised were:
i. Developed a protocol to enhance production and growing of seed and seedling production.
ii. Identified various host species, which include Calliandra calothyrsus, Sesbania sesban, Croton megalocarpus and Acacia species.
iii. Developed air-layering techniques as complimentary propagation of O lanceolate; established 4ha plantation of sandalwood in Kitui and Muguga to demonstrate the growing of sandalwood on-farm.
iv. Established 2ha of sandalwood conservation stands in Kitui and Muguga.
i) Diversification of tree species on-farm: Trees on farms provide multiple uses that include fencing, timber, posts, fodder, food, poles, fuel wood, medicines, fruits, nuts and other environmental goods and services such as wind breaks/shelter belts, water catchment protection, shade, soil conservation, boundary markers and enhanced scenery. Once adopted, trees on farms, apart from domestic use, would immensely contribute to climate change mitigation and hence 10 percent tree cover. KEFRI, in collaboration with partners, identified alternative tree species for specified ecological zones and sites. Key outputs realised were:
i. Identification and successful introduction of additional on-farm tree species such as Casuarina equisetifolia, Milicia exelsa and Gmelina arborea at the coastal region; and Grevillea robusta and Croton megalocarpus in Central highlands.
ii. Mangifera indica, Adansonia digitata, Tamarindus indica, Vitex payos, Melia volkensii in Eastern region; Eucalyptus species, Malkhamia lutea, Calliandra, Calothyrsus, Tithonia diversifolia, and Maesopsis eminii in Western region; and Gmelina aborea, Bamboo spp C calothyrsus and Tithonia diversifolia and Acacia spp in Nyanza region.
iii. Training of 500 farmers on propagation, establishment and management of various tree species.
iv. Establishment of over 25 demonstration plots to showcase various tree species management and use. These outputs have potential benefits to small-scale farmers, NGOs, hotels, wood processing industries, industries that use wood as energy sources, construction and power transmission industry, and KFS and private nurseries.
j) Improved management and monitoring of tree pests and diseases: Pests and diseases pose a major challenge to tree growth at all stages of development and cause direct and indirect losses through reduced growth and/or mortality of affected trees. As a result, KEFRI has initiated programmes to monitor and guide management of tree pests and diseases in the country. Towards this end, key realised outputs were:
i. Successfully introduced a biological control agent – Pausia juniperorum – a parasitoid, which has kept Cinara cuppressi (cypress aphid) under control; generated information on the distribution, impact and management of blue gum chalcid which affects eucalypts, Red Gum Lerp Psyllid (Glycapsis brimblecombei), Botryosphaeria and Teratosphaeria gauchensis canker diseases on key commercial species.
ii. Studies are ongoing on Bronze bug distribution and population dynamics. Cleruchoides noackae, an egg parasitoid for the biological control of Bronze bug, has been identified.
iii. Termiticide efficacy trials are carried out periodically to inform the Pest Control Products Board.
iv. Development of guidelines for managing canker and dieback diseases. The impact of these initiatives have been:
• Provision of over 200 advisory services per year of different tree pests and diseases to various stakeholders on request.
• Integration of tree pest management which has led to reduction of tree mortalities and the number of unhealthy trees.
• Reduction of pests and diseases, leading to healthy forests and increased incomes for neighbouring communities.
• Re-introduction of Cuppressus lusitanica in plantation development.
k) Rehabilitation of degraded natural forests: Vision 2030 identifies deforestation as one of the challenges that Kenya has to address. The country’s closed canopy forest cover stands at around 7 percent. The most affected forests are the five water towers, namely: the Mau, Mt Kenya, Aberdares, Cherangany Hills and Mt Elgon forest ecosystems, which are major sources of river waters.
In recognition of the challenge of delayed natural recovery of degraded forests, KEFRI continues to demonstrate technologies for rehabilitating and accelerating the recovery process. Key outputs realised in the year under review were:
i. Identification of the main causes of delayed regeneration of degraded natural forests – lack of remnant trees/seed sources.
ii. Demonstration of the best rehabilitation approaches as protection of such sites, dense planting of seedlings and enrichment planting; mapping of the extent of forest degradation.
iii. Development of rehabilitation guidelines.
These initiatives have resulted in KFS adopting the technologies for scaling up rehabilitation of degraded forests and about 1,200 hectares are now undergoing rehabilitation through the Green Zones Development Support Project (GZDSP). In addition, forests adjoining communities – through respective community forest associations (CFAs) – have adopted the technologies and rehabilitated various degraded forests.
l) Management and control of the invasive prosopis (Mathenge) species: The prosopis species (Mathenge) exhibit rapid vegetative growth and have the ability to survive and thrive in poor soils and under drought conditions. Prosopis was introduced to Kenya and widespread planting started in 1970s to rehabilitate arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs). However, the species has spread along wetlands and riparian ecosystems. In an effort to address the invasion, KEFRI has developed technologies for managing prosopis in Kenya. KEFRI determined that prosopis was widespread in seven counties, namely, Baringo, Garissa, Isiolo, Mandera, Tana River, Taita Taveta and Turkana, and negatively affected grazing. KEFRI then developed technologies for management, utilisation and control of prosopis invasion.
m) Promoting adoption of bamboo use in Kenya: Bamboo is one of the most important non-timber forest resources, playing an important role in the reduction of timber consumption, environmental and forest protection. Bamboo contributes to soil and water conservation, and aids the cottage industry through poverty alleviation and sustainable development of rural economies, thus contributing to the Big Four Agenda. The Ministry, through KEFRI, has been involved in bamboo research and development with the support of various funding agencies, and it promotes it on-farm. Key achievements were:
i. Introduction of 22 species of bamboo as trials in areas where the indigenous species could not thrive. About 12 species perform well in various eco-regions.
ii. Publication of a guideline for establishing and managing plantations of bamboo in Kenya.
iii. Five bamboo training manuals were developed for artisans on harvesting, preservation, processing round-pole bamboo, product design and industrial products, and finishing.
iv. Generation of information on products and markets on the many uses of bamboo.
v. Demonstration of the use of bamboo in construction of buildings in Kibra and Mathare settlements in Nairobi and Siongiroi Girls School in Bomet.
vi. Development of a draft policy on bamboo to help in reviewing the legal status of using bamboo in Kenya.
vii. Establishment of demonstration plots of bamboo in various eco-regions.
n) Efficient biomass energy production: Charcoal and firewood are used by about 80 percent of Kenyan households. They are preferred due to ease of use, accessibility and affordability. KEFRI, in collaboration with other stakeholders, has developed efficient and sustainable charcoal making technologies to optimise the use of scarce wood resources, with improved yields of 30 percent. The main gains were:
i. Developed charcoal production technologies on improved earth and metal kilns for small-scale charcoal users, which improved the recovery rate from 10 percent to 30 percent.
ii. Published a guideline on improved charcoal production.
iii. Developed a checklist of appropriate indigenous tree species for high quality charcoal production; developed briquetting technologies from forest and agricultural wastes.
o) Sustainable utilisation of gums and resins: The dryland ecosystems are endowed with a rich diversity of useful natural resources with the potential to improve livelihoods. Some of these natural resources include gums (gum arabic) and resins (myrrh, hagar and frankincense). These provide food and are articles of commerce, both locally and internationally, earning communities valuable revenue.
The Ministry’s forest research agency, KEFRI, in collaboration with several partners, has undertaken research and development of gums and resins in the region, with some of the following important gains by the end of FY 2019-2020:
i. Taxonomical and ecological studies confirmed the main sources of gum and resin producing species and varieties.
ii. Chemical characterisation of gums and resins and the best yielding varieties was done.
iii. The gums and resins value chain was mapped, key obstacles identified and advocacy carried out among the stakeholders.
iv. Establishment of demonstration plots using Acacia Senegal trees for rehabilitation of degraded ASAL areas.
v. Development of protocols for sustainable wild harvesting of Acacia Senegal var kerensis and Commiphora holtziana in ASALs.
p) Aloe development in Kenya: Kenya has approximately 60 species of aloe, of which 26 are indigenous. Only five of these (Aloe turkanensis, Aloe scabrifolia, Aloe secundiflora, Aloe calidophia and Aloe rivae) are exploited commercially. KEFRI, in collaboration with a number of stakeholders, has been promoting the growing and utilisation of aloes in ASALs. This has led to development of protocols for both planting of aloes and processing of aloe products – including soap, shampoo and detergents. These technologies have been linked to both entrepreneurs and community groups. KEFRI trained group members on aloe planting and processing; developed technology for crystallisation of aloe vera gel into powder to increase shelf-life; and generated information on chemical characterisation of indigenous aloes.
q) Development of indigenous fruits in Kenya: Fruits from indigenous trees are recognised as a significant source of essential nutrients, as well as a source of income. There are over 400 species of fruit plants in Kenya, most of which are found growing wildly in rangelands and forested areas where their populations are declining. These fruits are consumed as food and are a source of income. Due to their socio-economic importance, KEFRI has undertaken a number of research and development initiatives on these indigenous fruits. Key results have been:
i. Development of products into fruit jam, juices, wine and candies from various indigenous fruit species.
ii. Development of production protocols for processing of 12 commercial products from a number of indigenous fruits.
iii. Prioritisation of the socio-economic preference of the following major indigenous fruits:
• Tamarindus indica (tamarind).
• Adansonia digitata (baobab).
• Ximenia americana, Carissa edulis.
• Ancybotry stayloris.
• Ziziphus mauritiana.
• Dialium orientale.
• Vitex doniana.
• Vitex payos and sclerocary abirrea (marula).
iv. Training of 10 groups with a total of about 500 members from Kitui, Kibwezi, Embu, Kakamega and Nairobi.
v. Market survey confirmed that at least 10 indigenous fruits are marketed in local towns and urban centres, while four of them (T. indica, A. digitata, D. orientale and Syzygium guinense) are also marketed nationally. Tamarindus indica is, in addition, being marketed internationally.
r) Technology dissemination to stakeholders: To effectively communicate forestry research findings to stakeholders at local, national and international levels, the uptake of the information is passed through various communication channels such as field and open days, print and electronic media, including the Ministry’s website, agricultural shows, radio talk, and technical publications. The Ministry has:
i. Decentralised technology dissemination to the six national/regional research centres by appointing dissemination officers in each centre.
ii. Established libraries in all KEFRI centres and connected to various databases.
iii. Digitised 2,600 publications, with 1,500 digital publications with metadata created; uploaded from static site to KEFRI library repository.
iv. Published papers in referred journals and as book chapters, technical notes, research notes policy briefs, guidelines and theses.
v. Held four KEFRI scientific conferences.
vi. Held one open day annually in each of the KEFRI centres.
vii. Held a total of 410 field days in all KEFRI research centres.
viii. Exhibited in at least 12 Agricultural Society of Kenya (ASK) shows and international trade fares annually.
ix. Distributed about 5,000 copies of publications yearly.
x. Held centre research advisory committees in all KEFRI regional centres yearly.
xi. Established a total of 152 demonstration plots in all regional research centres.
xii. Linked KEFRI electronically to 85 collaborators through the KEFRI website.
xiii. Organised and hosted four national forestry scientific conferences and one international (IUFRO- FORNESSA) forestry congress.
s) Environmental management and pollution control
i. Plastic bags ban: The Ministry, through the National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA), banned the use, manufacture and importation of plastic carrier bags, through Kenya Gazette notice No. 2536 of 28th February 2017. The ban took effect on 28th August 2017, and has so far been able to realise 85 percent compliance. Further, during the fourth session of the UN Environment Assembly (UNEA 4), the Ministry, through NEMA, held a side event on “Strengthening the Global Momentum to Tackle Plastic Pollution” during which it was observed that the ban had been successful, as Kenyans had embraced the decision leading to widespread adoption of sustainable and innovative alternatives.
ii. Reclamation of riparian land under Nairobi River Regeneration: The main objective of the programme is to rehabilitate, restore and sustainably manage the Nairobi River Basin in order to provide improved livelihoods and enhance environmental quality and values through well-regulated economic and recreational ventures. The Ministry, through NEMA, played a key role in enforcing reclamation efforts and has continued to implement its mandate to achieve the objectives of the river regeneration programme for a clean, healthy and sustainable environment.
iii. EMCA Water Quality Regulations of 2006 – 100-day Rapid Results Initiative (RRI) on Effluent Discharge Licence (EDL): To hasten compliance with the EMCA Water Quality Regulations of 2006 and reduce pollution to water bodies, the Ministry initiated a countrywide 100-day Rapid Results Initiative (RRI) on Effluent Discharge Licence (EDL) on 8th May 2019. Within 60 days of the RRI implementation, 1,497 facilities had been inspected in the eight regions of Coast, North Lake, South Lake, Nairobi Metropolis, North Eastern, Central, North Rift and South Rift, where over 300 firms were issued with closure notices, and 302 arrests made on individuals flouting the Water Quality Regulations under the Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA) of 1999. To improve enforcement of environmental standards, the Ministry established the first ever NEMA environmental laboratory equipped with mobile ambient air quality and water quality monitoring.
iv. Ease of doing business: To promote ease of doing business in the country, the Ministry, through NEMA, revised the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) licensing processing period for low-risk projects to five days, from 30 days, through Kenya Gazette notice No. 31 and No. 32 of May 2019. To speed up implementation of the revised regulations, an implementation guideline was developed to guide the public and the authority in the application and approval process. This has gone a long way to support the implementation of the Big Four Agenda. On affordable housing, the Ministry through NEMA improved efficiency in the payment of licensing fees by developing an Application Programming Interface (API). Kenyans are now able to use the E-citizen platform to pay for various licences and permits that are issued by NEMA.
v. State of Environment (SoE) and National Environment Action Plan (NEAP): The Ministry developed and published the State of Environment Report (SOE) for 2016-2018, and the National Environment Action Plan (NEAP) 2018-2024. Under the sectoral planning, the Ministry prepared and launched the 2nd Edition of State of the Coast Report for Kenya on 29th March 2019. To further guide the conservation and management of the coastal zone, based on the state of the Coast Report recommendations, the Ministry, through a consultative process, developed the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Action Plan 2019-2023. Preparation of these reports not only contributed to realisation of the national priorities on conservation of the coastal and marine environment, but also contributed to the country’s regional obligations on implementation of the Nairobi Convention and its protocols, as well as implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals.
vi. Relocation of Kibarani and Kachok dumpsites: The Vision 2030 recognises that efficient and sustainable waste management systems are required as the country develops into a newly-industrialised State by 2030. In this regard, the Vision 2030 flagship projects set for five cities; namely Mombasa, Kisumu, Eldoret, Nakuru and Thika, to have fully functional and compliant waste management systems by developing strategies towards achieving sustainable waste management and clean healthy environment. To achieve this vision, the Ministry, through NEMA, initiated the rehabilitation of Kachok and Kibarani dumpsites in Kisumu and Mombasa counties, respectively. In the spirit of devolution, the Ministry worked with the two county governments where the two dumpsites have been reclaimed.
vii. Devolution and decentralisation of environmental functions: To support devolution and decentralisation of environmental functions, the Ministry through NEMA facilitated 37 counties to publish their own County Environment Committees (CECs) in the Kenya Gazette as provided for in the EMCA, to perform their devolved environmental functions. Further, the Ministry trained 73 officers from the National and County Governments on a Basic Environment Enforcement Course. This will go a long way in supporting environmental enforcement efforts in the country.
t) Meteorological Services: During the financial years 2018-2019 and 2019-2020, the following achievements were made:
• Successfully organised and hosted the Greater Horn of Africa Climate Outlook Forum (54th GHACOF) from 27th to 29th January 2020 in Mombasa, which brought together climate scientists, researchers, users from socio-economic sectors, government institutions, development partners, decision makers and civil society stakeholders to develop the March-April-May 2020 regional seasonal outlook forecast. The event culminated in the Department releasing the national long rains seasonal forecast.
• Implemented the use of blended data sets (satellite and station data) in generation of seasonal forecasts through use of GeoCOF and GeoClim.
• Started incorporating a dynamical model: Weather Research in Forecasting (WRF), in the generation of seasonal forecasts.
• Facilitated the writing of 47 Climate Information Services Plan (CISP), which aim at supporting societies to build resilience to future climate change and take advantage of opportunities provided by favourable climate conditions for effective exploitation and resilience strategies at county level.
• Increased dissemination of climate information through electronic and social media, internet and face-to- face sessions.
• Installed 20 automatic weather stations (AWS), 60 rain-gauges and 12 evaporation pans.
• Installed a new upper air station at KMD headquarters.
• Produced a report on the state of the climate in Kenya for the year 2019.
• Expanded dissemination of meteorological products through SMS, making them available in western Kenya counties of Kisumu, Siaya, Kakamega, Trans Nzoia, Bungoma, Vihiga, Homa Bay, Migori and Busia.
• Provision of a timely, early warning system on flood management from a hydro-meteorological sub-branch on Nzoia River Basin to help mitigate the impacts of flooding.
• Initiated a working collaboration with the UK Met Office to improve service delivery at county level through WISER (Weather and Climate Information Services for Africa) Project that facilitates decentralised services at the county level.
• Partnered in the Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture Project (KCSAP) under the Big Four Agenda, which offers an opportunity for responding to and reducing the adverse effects of climate change, thus assisting the country attain food security and achieve its developmental goals.
• Collaborated to issue sector-specific forecasts through collaborations with the SWIFT (Science for Weather Information and Forecasting Techniques) project. Under this project sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) forecasts were regularly produced.
iii. International participation: The Institute for Meteorological Training and Research conducted the following capacity building activities:
• Two Advanced Meteorological Technicians Courses (AMTC-18) for participants from Rwanda; one consisting of nine students held from June 2018 to July 2019, and the other held from January to December 2019. A Middle Meteorological Technicians Course (MMTC-13) was held from January 2017 to December 2019. A Meteorological Instruments and Methods of Observation Course (MIMOC-5) for six meteorological technicians from Somalia was held from September to December 2019.
• Training sessions held between 13th May and 2nd August 2019 on improved access to, and application of, satellite data to increase information management, decision-making and planning capacity of institutions mandated for environment, climate, food security and related responsibilities, for better planning for climate change and sustainable development. This was conducted for four Kenyans, two people from Lake Chad commission and eight Somali application and system administration managers.
• Organised a blended Meteorological Satellite Application Course, which consisted of five active weeks working with satellite products and applications – an online training phase in May-June 2019. Fifty participants from 25 countries (Egypt, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Liberia, Sudan, Comoros, Tunisia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Gabon, Togo, Oman, Ukraine, Algeria, Seychelles, Swaziland, Guinea, Lesotho, Ghana, Mauritius, Uganda, Cameroon, and Madagascar) participated in this online course. Seventeen online participants came to Nairobi for face-to-face classroom training in November 2019. The participants were from nine countries (Egypt, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Liberia, Sudan, Comoros and Tunisia).
• African Satellite Meteorology Education and Training (ASMET) Project team composed of experts from Kenya, South Africa and Morocco, in partnership with the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the Cooperation for Meteorological Education and Training (COMET) Programme, which is part of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), developed a learning resource module (ASMET-module 11) to enable forecasters training of on-line basis on applications of MSG data in various fields from now casting to short-range using satellite data and NWP data over Africa. The learner can access the module from the internet at their own pace.
u) Policy and governance in environment management
i. Multilateral environmental agreements: The fourth session of the United National Environment Assembly (UNEA 4) was held from 11th to 15th March 2019 at the UN Complex, Gigiri, in Nairobi, Kenya. The theme of the conference was: ‘’Innovative Solutions to Environmental Challenges and Sustainable Consumption and Production’’. Five Heads of State and Government, 157 ministers and deputy minsters, and approximately 5,000 delegates from 179 countries, attended. Others included UN bodies and specialised agencies, intergovernmental organisations, and non-governmental and civil society organisations.
ii. Forest policy, legislation and governance: Forest governance in Kenya has made significant progress since 1985, changing from a ‘command-and-control’ approach to a more participatory and multi-stakeholder involvement. Enactment of the 2010 Constitution has provided an avenue for public participation in natural resources management and equitable sharing of benefits from natural resources.
To mainstream the constitutional provision, KEFRI as the lead agency in forestry research and allied natural resources is required to provide technical information and policy briefs towards the development of policies and legislation for proper governance of the forestry sector. In this aspect, key gains were made:
• Preparation of Forest Conservation and Management Act 2016 and the draft National Forest Policy 2015, and also in their review 2020; piloted and documented successful PFM practices that informed the review and enactment of the Forests Act (2015) Cap 385 of the Laws of Kenya.
• Developed two Participatory Forest Management (PFM) training manuals; organised the first national PFM conference where over 1,000 stakeholders from Kenya and other countries participated, and published the conference proceedings.
• Developed and published a guideline for payment of ecosystem services in Kenya.
• Established an environmental monitoring framework, including evaporation and stream flow monitoring programme.
• Trained over 500 communities/community groups and 120 forest managers, mainly from KFS and key NGOs, on forest extension.
• Identified the cost bearers and beneficiaries of river systems conservation.
National Economic Survey 2020
Ministry of Environment and Forestry