Kenya’s education sector includes the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, the Teachers Service Commission and other affiliated agencies and institutions.
In a nutshell, the main objective of the sector is to provide, promote and coordinate quality education and training. It has also the mandate to integrate science, technology and innovation in sustainable national socio-economic development processes. In this matter, the sector has the overall responsibility to increase access to education and training, improve quality and relevance of education, and reduce inequality as well as advance knowledge and skills in science, technology, and innovation for national, regional and global competitiveness.
Towards these goals, the sector has been aligned to the Constitution, Kenya Vision 2030 and to the country’s international commitments and obligations. That means the sector’s policies, legal and other regulatory reforms have been structured in accordance with the Constitution and national priorities. Most of those reforms are geared towards increasing financial and quality human resources that would be required to provide expanded access, equity, quality and relevance of education and application of science and technology in the country.
According to the Kenya Population and Housing Census, a comprehensive survey that was conducted by the Kenya National bureau of statistics showed the total number of educational institutions increased by 3.2 per cent from 77,197 in 2013 to 79,641 in 2014.
This means that during the period under review, the sector made significant progress. Enrolment in Early Childhood Development and Education (ECDE) increased from 2.9 million in 2013 to three million in 2014, while the total enrolment in primary schools rose marginally from 9.9 million in 2013 to 10 million in 2014.
Enrolment in secondary education was also encouraging as it rose from 2.1 million in 2013 to 2.3 million in 2014. This was attributed to free day secondary education scheme in public schools.
Besides, the total university student enrolment rose by 22.8 per cent from 361,379 in 2013/14 to 443,783 in 2014/15. The increase was mainly due to infrastructure development, introduction of new courses and opening of more satellite campuses.
Education is undergoing several challenges, mainly limited funding, shortage of teachers and lecturers in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions. There is also poor and inadequate infrastructure, slow pace of information communication and technology integration, low level of investment in science and technology and inadequacies of legal, policy and institutional frameworks.
Government’s education agenda
The Government’s vision of Kenya’s education is to achieve a globally competitive education, training, research and innovation system for sustainable development.
Consequently, the Government has committed education sector to provide, promote and coordinate quality education and training as well as integration of science, technology and innovation in sustainable socio-economic development processes.
Amid efforts to realise those objectives in the shortest time possible in line with the global Education for All (EFA) initiative and post 2015 United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals, the government has come up with key strategic goals:
- To provide access to quality education and training at all levels.
- To establish, maintain and manage professional teaching service for all public primary, secondary and tertiary institutions.
- To formulate appropriate policies, legal and institutional frameworks in education.
- To create new knowledge and technologies.
- To promote and coordinate the development of science and technology.
Linked to those goals, the Government has drawn broad objectives for the sector whose aim is to enhance access to education, raise the quality and relevance of education and ensure equity as well as exploit knowledge in science, technology and innovation. Those broad objectives are:
- To enhance access, equity, quality and relevance of education and training at all levels.
- To promote Open and Distance Learning and ICT in curriculum delivery at all levels of education and training.
- To strengthen linkages between higher education and training institutions with communities and industry.
- To promote and integrate research, science, technology and innovation at all levels.
- To provide and maintain sufficient teaching and training service for all public institutions and achieve equitable and optimal utilization of teachers in the country.
- To undertake quality assurance and review standards of education and training at all levels.
- To improve the management capacities of education managers and other personnel involved in education and training at all levels.
- To enhance quality teaching, professionalism and integrity in all educational institutions.
State Department of Education
This sub-sector is mandated to provide quality education and training for all Kenyans, in an effort to contribute towards a just and cohesive society that enjoys equitable social development in a clean and secure environment.
The department’s vision is providing a globally competitive quality education, training and research for Kenya’s sustainable development.
The department’s mission is to provide, promote, co-ordinate quality education, training and research for empowerment of individuals to become caring, competent and responsible citizens who value education as a lifelong process.
To fulfill its vision and mission, the department has varied functions and mandates that include: primary and secondary education policy; quality assurance and supervision of pre-primary education; primary and secondary education institutions; teacher education management; registration of basic education and training institutions; curriculum development; examinations and certification; school equipment; university education policy; early childhood education and development; special needs education and adult education.
There are eight directorates under the State department of Education:
Directorate of Basic Education: The Directorate is responsible for pre-primary education programmes, primary education, Non-Formal Education (NFE) and primary school teacher training colleges. Under the same directorate, there is the Special Needs Education Division, which focuses on the needs of learners with special needs in general.
Directorate of Secondary and Tertiary Education
This directorate is mandated with the co-ordination of secondary education and other tertiary institutions of learning. In addition, it coordinates the pre-service teacher training of the diploma teachers training colleges.
Directorate of Higher education: The directorate functions include formulation and review of policies on higher education in collaboration with relevant bodies and agencies, administration of university scholarships offered by foreign countries, disbursement of grants, coordination of admission of students to public universities in liaison with Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Services Board (KUCCPS) – successor of the Joint Admissions Board (JAB)- and coordination of students exchange programmes. University education is coordinated through this directorate.
Directorate of Quality Assurance and Standards
The directorate provides quality assurance services in education and training institutions. It also establishes, maintains and improves educational standards. It is responsible for the quality assurance and standards assessment at all levels of education except tertiary and university. It is also responsible for feedback to and from all educational institutions (except universities) as a means of ensuring constant improvements in service delivery. This directorate works closely with the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) in the review and the development of the curriculum and the Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC) on curriculum evaluation.
Directorate of Policy, Partnerships and East Africa Community Affairs
The directorate is mandated with the coordination of policy formulation, programme planning and co-ordination and reviews, and other cross cutting issues such as the HIV/AIDS; gender and education; sector governance and accountability; peace in education and guidance and counseling.
Directorate of Field and Other Services: The directorate mandate includes deployment of education officers; primary and secondary in-service education and training of teachers; capacity building of field officers; guidance and counseling programmes; field training in ICT; emergency response in education and voluntary service organizations. The directorate has the department of field services and the department of other services.
Directorate of Alternative Basic, Adult and Continuing Education
The directorate coordinates adult and continuing education programmes and provides basic education and training opportunities to adults and out of school youth aged 15 years and above who for whatever reasons either missed their chances in the formal education system in their childhood or dropped out of school before attaining sustainable levels of education.
Administration and Planning Services:
The State department has other units, which offer support services to the technical directorates. These are: Administration, Human Resource Management and Development, Accounts, Finance, Central Planning and Project Monitoring Unit, Information and Communication Technology and Procurement divisions.
State Department of Science and Technology:
The sub-sector derives its mandate from the Presidential Circular No. 2 of May 2013 and its responsibilities include: provision of quality assurance services to technical education; coordination, formulation and implementation of the technology and innovation policies; registration of technical training institutes and institutes of technology; management of research, science and technology; research authorisation, coordination, inventory and dissemination.
The stated vision of the science and technology sub-sector under the State Department of Science and Technology is to aim for a globally competitive education, training, research and innovation system for sustainable development. In addition the sub-sector’s mission is encapsulated under the scope of providing, promoting and coordinating the delivery of quality education, training and research and to enhance integration of science, technology and innovation into national production systems for sustainable development.
This sub-sectors those four directorates:
Directorate of Technical Vocational and Training
The directorate has the overall mandate on matters of technical education and training in the country. This include : enhancing access, equity, quality and relevance at all levels of technical education and training; improving the quality of technical education and training and promotion of linkages and collaborations between industry and TVET institutions; promotion of innovativeness and research in TVET institutions.
The TVET sector in Kenya currently has two national polytechnics, one technical teachers college, forty- one technical training institutes and ten institutes of technology.
The Directorate of Research Management and Development
The mandate of the directorate includes: policy for research, science, technology and innovation; research promotion and dissemination; research commercialization; technology development; science promotion; and international strategic collaborations.
Directorate of Technical Accreditation and Quality Assurance: The directorate provides quality assurance services in TVET institutions. It also establishes, maintains and improves educational standards. It is responsible for the quality assurance and standards assessment at all levels of training except basic and university. The directorate provided its services based on the Education Act 2011. With the enactment of TVET Act, 2013 the directorate functions have now been transferred to TVET Authority as from June 2013 when the relevant Act was ratified.
Directorate of Youth Training
The Directorate was established through Presidential Circular No. 1 of 2005 under the Ministry of Youth Affairs and mandated to revitalize and rehabilitate Youth Polytechnics countrywide. This mandate addresses the constitutional requirement as articulated in Article 53 1(b) regarding provision of free and compulsory basic education and Article 55 (a-c) regarding access to relevant education and training, employment and participation in national development by the youth, as well as the Jubilee Manifesto.
The Executive Order No.2 of 2013 on Organisation of Government placed functions of youth polytechnic under Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.
Administration and Planning
The unit offers support services to the technical directorates. These are in administration, human resources management and development, accounts, finance, central planning and project monitoring unit, information and communication technology and procurement.
Teachers Service Commission
The main responsibility of the Teachers Service Commission is to establish and maintain adequate teaching force that is equitably distributed and improve performance and professional conduct of teachers for increased learning outcomes in all public primary, secondary and tertiary institutions under the education sector.
Some of the key functions of the TSC include registration, recruitment, deployment, promotion, remuneration, discipline and maintenance of teaching standards. TSC vision is to be an institution of excellence in the provision of efficient and effective service for quality teaching. Consequently, the commission’s mission is geared to establishing and maintaining a sufficient, professional teaching service for public education and training institutions in the country.
The TSC is mandated to carry the following functions:
- To ensure that all professionally qualified persons engaged in teaching are registered.
- To recruit and deploy registered teachers to ensure the provision of adequate teachers to all public basic education and tertiary institutions.
- To promote and transfer teachers as guided by the existing schemes of service.
- To exercise disciplinary control over teachers in order to regulate the professional conduct and integrity of teachers in and out of classroom.
- To terminate employment of teachers as premised on the needs of the country.
- To fast track the separation process as a result of natural attrition and to ensure employees and dependants of former employees are paid final dues in a timely manner.
- To review the standards of education and training of persons entering the teaching service
- To establish and maintain basic professional qualifications for teaching service.
- To review the demand for and supply of teachers and to establish medium and long term teacher requirement in the country.
- To advise the national government on matters relating to the teaching profession.
The Teachers Commission has seven directorates, namely:
Directorate of Finance: The objective of the finance function is to improve prioritization of expenditure and encourage efficiency and effectiveness in service delivery. The directorate also ensures prudent financial management practices.
Directorate of Accounts: The accounting function involves verification and processing of payments; collection of appropriation in aid and accounting for all grants and funds received by the TSC. The accounting services include maintenance of accounting records, accountable documents, and preparation of monthly and annual financial statements. It also involves preparation and submission of final accounts to Kenya National Audit Office.
Directorate of Internal Audit: The objective of internal audit is to offer independent, objective assurance, consultancy and advisory services that contribute to improvement in risk management, control and governance services in the commission’s operations. The overriding aim is to ensure full compliance with the existing regulations and guidelines.
Directorate of Information and Communication Technology: The main objective of this directorate is to mainstream ICT in all TSC operations. The main functions of this division are to:
- Enhance online services in teacher management.
- Provide adequate ICT infrastructure at the headquarters, county and sub- county levels.
- Automate the core teacher management processes.
- Establish and maintain a disaster recovery and appropriate business continuity programs.
- Provide the technical support for all the systems deployed by the commission.
- Improve productivity and efficiency in service delivery.
Directorate of Administration Services: This unit ensures service delivery structures are establishment to support teacher management. The directorate seeks to strengthen the integrated support systems necessary for efficient service delivery in the commission with the main function of coordinating of all support functions for the commission namely:
- Policy development, research and strategic planning
- Office administrative services and coordination of functions,
- Corporate communication, customer care and integrity,
- Gender and disability mainstreaming and wellness.
- Legal, security and transport services
- Records management services
Directorate of Human Resource Management and Development: At the TSC, the human resource management function entails development, implementation and review of various human resource policies, guidelines and manuals with a view to enhancing staff performance, motivation and improved service delivery. This includes the development and implementation of the schemes of service and the codes of regulations for all TSC employees.
Directorate of Teacher Management: This is principally the professional arm of the TSC and is mandated to carry out the following functions;
- Teacher registration
- Teacher recruitment
- Teacher deployment
- Promotion of teachers
- Teacher discipline
- Review the standards of education and training of persons enterimg the teaching service.
- Review the demand for and suply of teachers
- Advise the National on matters relating to the teaching profession.
For efficiency of management of those crucial services, the directorate has four divisions:
- Post –primaryeducation division, that deals with teacher recruitment, deployment and promotion of post primary teachers.
- Primary education division that deals with teacher recruitment, deployment and promotion of primary teachers, Teacher Advisory Centre tutors and lecturers managing District Centres for Early Childhood Education (DICECE).
- Discipline division- which deals wih issues of integrity and professionalism among teachers;
- Quality assurance and standards division, which deals with registration and continous professional development of teachers.
Autonomous and semi-autonomous Government agencies:
To discharge to its duties effectively the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology has several autonomous and semi-autonomous Government agencies (SAGAs) which are charged with various specific responsibilities.
SAGAs in the State Department of Education:
SAGAs in the State Department of education report directly to the Principal Secretary particularly on issues of accountability and the Education Secretary on professional matters.
Some of the key SAGAs include the Institute for Capacity Development of Teachers in Africa (ICDTA), the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD), the Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC), the School Equipment Production Unit (SEPU), the Kenya Education Management Institute (KEMI) and the Kenya Institute of Special Education (KISE).
Others are the Jomo Kenyatta Foundation (JKF), the Kenya Literature Bureau (KLB); the Commission for University Education (CUE), the Higher Education Loans Board (HELB), the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI) and the Kenya National Commission for UNESCO.
Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) The Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development- formerly the Kenya Institute of Education (KIE) was established by KICD Act which came into effect from January 22, 2013. Its primary function is to conduct educational research and to review, vet, and approve local and foreign curricular and curricular support materials for use in all levels of education and training in Kenya except that of university level.
KICD collaborates with other institutions in conducting professional programmes for stakeholders in education. Through evaluation of instruction materials, KICD ensures that all such educational materials are of high quality, relevant and cost effective. The institute also collects, documents, catalogues and disseminates information on curriculum, curriculum support materials and innovations.
It develops and ensures equitable dissemination of curriculum and curriculum support materials through radio, television and e-learning. The institute carries out educational consultancies for income generation and develops digital content to enhance curriculum interpretation and implementation which is one of the flagship projects of Kenya’s Vision 2030 initiative.
Kenya National Examinations Council (KNEC) The Kenya National Examinations Council performs the administration of primary, secondary and tertiary examination on behalf of the government. Together with Directorate of Quality Assurance and Standards, KNEC coordinates curriculum development and national assessment of learning achievements.
The agency also test runs draft curricula and carries out equivalence procedures of certificates and diplomas issued by other examining bodies. Currently, KNEC conducts eighteen local examinations that which include:
- Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE)
- Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE)
- Primary Teachers Education (PTE)
- Teacher Certificate in Adult Education (TCAE)
- Diploma in Early Childhood Development and Education (ECDE)
- Business Education Single and Group Subjects Examinations (Certificate Level)
- Business Management Courses (Certificate and Diploma Levels)
- Technical Education (Certificate, Diploma and Higher National Diploma Levels)
- Foreign examinations administered by the KNEC: In addition to administering local
- Examinations, KNEC also administers foreign examinations on behalf of various foreign
- Examination boards that comprise:
- Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music (ABRSM)
- The Association of Business Managers and Administrators (ABMA)
- Association of Business Executives (ABE)
- Cambridge International Examinations (CIE)
- Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA)
- Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM)
- Edexcel International offering GCE/IGCSE examinations
- Institute for the Management of Information Systems (IMIS)
- Institute of Actuaries (IA)
- Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators (ICSA)
- Institute of Financial Accountants/International Association of Bookkeepers (IFA/IAB)
- Institute of Legal Executives (ILEX)
- International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO)
- London Chamber of Commerce and Industry Examinations Board (LCCI)
Higher Education Loans Board (HELB): The Higher Education Loans Board was established by the Higher Education Loans Board Act, of 1995. It came into existence in July 1995 through Kenya Gazette Supplement (Cap 213A). The Board derives its functions from the Act which is to source funding and finance public institutions of higher learning. With the enactment of the TVET Act 2013, HELB mandate was expanded to award loans and bursaries to Kenyan students’ in public technical vocational entrepreneurship training institutions.
Commission for University Education (CUE): The Commission for University Education was established under the Universities Act 2012 to replace the Commission for Higher Education the core mandate is to regulate university education in Kenya in matters related to accreditation, registration and quality assurance. So far, the commission has made great strides in ensuring the maintenance of standards, quality and relevance in all aspects of university education. The commission administers the Universities Regulations, 2014 that were gazetted on June 12, 2014. All stakeholders of university education are advised to familiarise themselves and strictly adhere to the provisions of those regulations.
Recognition and Equation of Qualifications: The Commission for University Education undertakes recognition and equation of degrees, post graduate diplomas and post -graduate certificates conferred or awarded by foreign universities and institutions in accordance with the Universities Act No. 42 of 2012, The University Regulations, 2014 and the University Standards and Guidelines set by the commission from time to time. Below see the current criteria.
CUE’s criteria for recognition and equation
- The qualifications should have been obtained from an accredited and recognised university or institution.
- The holder of the Award must have met the Minimum Entry Requirements for a course leading to a similar award in Kenya.
- All copies of certificates and academic transcripts presented as proof of attainment of Entry requirements for a particular qualification must be certified by an Advocate and Commissioner for Oaths, or the issuing university/institution.
- For recognition of bachelor’s degree qualifications, the holder of the Award must have must have obtained any of the following qualifications:
- Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) with a mean grade of C+ and above or its equivalent.
- A diploma from an accredited and recognized tertiary institution with a minimum of a credit.
- KCSE means Grade C (plain) or equivalent with a post-secondary certificate and diploma from a recognized institution.
- The Kenya Certificate of Education (KCE), East African Certificate of Education (EACE) “Ordinary Level” Division II or equivalent, plus a post-secondary certificate and a diploma from a recognized institution.
- The Kenya Advanced Certificate of Education (KACE) “Advanced Level” with two Principal passes and a subsidiary.
- Pre-university course as a qualification for university entrance
- For recognition of master’s degree, post-graduate Diploma or post-graduate certificate qualifications, the holder of the Award must present a certified copy of a recognized bachelor’s degree certificate with academic transcripts.
- For recognition of doctorate degree qualifications, the holder of the award must present a certified copy of recognized bachelor’s and master’s degree certificates with academic transcripts.
Universities Funding Board (UFB): This board was established under the Universities Act of 2012 to mobilise and manage financial resources for the purposes of university education.
Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service Board (KUCCPSB): The Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service Board was established under the Universities Act, 2012 to manage post-secondary student admission in higher education. Subsequently, the board was inaugurated in February, 2014 and has the mandate of coordinating placement of government sponsored students into universities and colleges.
It is also required to disseminate information on available programmes, their cost and the areas of study prioritized by the government. In this regard, it collects and retains data relating to university and college placement for developing career guidance for the benefit of students
Kenya Education Management Institute (KEMI): Established under the Legal Notice No.19 of 2010 Cap 211, KEMI is the main capacity building agency for the State Department of Education. Its functions includes capacity building for the staff of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, offering management training to heads of learning institutions, research and consultancy services in the education sector.
KEMI also provides training programmes, seminars and workshops and produce maintain and disseminate documentation and information services and equipment relating to administrative management, technical and educational reforms. In addition, KEMI is mandated to operate as an educational advisory, consultancy and act as a resource centre for the education sector.
Kenya Institute of Special Education (KISE): This is a government agency mandated to train teachers and other stakeholders in special needs education. Its core functions include conducting teacher training courses at diploma and certificate levels for teachers involved in the provision of education of children with special needs. KISE functions as a resource centre for the production, collection and dissemination of information on special needs education to the general public.
The institute produces and sells learning materials and devices for use by persons with special needs. Such devices include the white cane for the visually impaired and ear moulds for hearing disabled persons. Plans are underway at KISE to improve communication for people with special needs through production of Braille and sign language reading and writing materials.
Jomo Kenyatta Foundation (JKF): Jomo Kenyatta Foundation is charged with publishing educational books for all levels of education. In the recent years, JKF has been commercialized with operational and financial autonomy to help the foundation to be more competitive and respond more appropriately to the market demands.
Kenya Literature Bureau (KLB): This publishing house is charged with producing learning and teaching materials for educational institutions at all levels. It also enjoys operational and financial autonomy to enable it to respond to market demands.
Institute for Capacity Development of Teachers in Africa (ICDTA): The centre is charged with the responsibility of building teachers’ capacities to enable them cope with the learning related challenges they face in the process of curriculum delivery in the area of mathematics, science and technology education.
Taking into account that those subjects are the foundation for development of science and technology innovations which supports the social pillar of Vision 2030, ICDTA has become a learning centre for teachers geared towards Strengthening of Teaching in Mathematics and Science Education (SMASE) in schools and colleges.
So far, ICDTA has established 108 centres for its secondary programme and 18 regional centres for primary education programmes in the country. Besides, ICDTA has been conducting management workshops for secondary school principals and other senior education officials.
Kenya National Commission for UNESCO (KNATCOM-UNESCO): The Kenya National Commission for UNESCO was established through the Cabinet Memo No.170 of 1964 and placed under the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. Basically, KNATCOM-UNESCO is a liaison office that coordinates the activities of UNESCO in Kenya.
In essence, this liaison office organizes international workshops and seminars and Coordinates the participation of local academics and researchers in global scholarship.
KNATCOM-UNESCO is regarded as the local clearing house for information related to UNESCO activities globally. It coordinates the awards of UNESCO sponsored scholarships and fellowships to Kenyans thereby helping in the building of specialized manpower for the country.
The National Education Board (NEB): The National Education Board was established under Article 5 of the Basic Education Act to advise the Cabinet Secretary, the department of education and related departments on policy issues. The chairman and members of the National Education Board were appointed and inaugurated by the Cabinet Secretary in August 2013.
The Education Appeals Tribunal (EAT): The Education Appeals Tribunal was established under Article 93 of the Basic Education Act of 2013 to resolve complaints from any person aggrieved by the decisions of the County Education Boards. The tribunal was constituted and inaugurated in June 2014 by the Cabinet Secretary.
County Education Boards (CEB): The County Education Boards are established under article 17 of the Basic Education Act of 2013 as agents of the National Education Board. The function of the boards is to oversee education management in the counties and provide education assessment and research service in identified areas in the county. The County Education Boards were appointed by the Cabinet Secretary in 2014.
Education Quality Assurance and Standards Council (ESQAC): The ESQAC has been empowered by the Basic Education Act 2013 to ensure provision of quality of basic education. The regulations formally establishing ESQAC were gazetted in February 2014.
SAGAs in the State Department of Science and Technology
As in the State Department of Education, SAGAs in the State Department of Science and Technology are under the Principal Secretary on matters of accountability. They include:
National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI): The National Council for Science and Technology (NCST) which became a body corporate in July 2012 was converted to the National Commission for Science, Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI) following the enactment of the Science, Technology and Innovation Act in February 2013. NACOSTI’s mandate is to advice, promote, coordinate, regulate and assure quality in the science, technology and innovation sector issues of science, technology and innovation.
Basically, the commission has a key role of developing national and county governments’ priorities in scientific, technological and innovation activities in Kenya in relation to the economic and social policies of the Government, and the country’s international commitments.
Kenya National Innovation Agency (KENIA): The Kenya National Innovation Agency is established under Part VI of the Science, Technology and Innovation Act, 2013 to develop and manage the Kenya National Innovation System. The Agency play a critical role in establishing linkages between universities, research institutions, the private sector, the government and other actors in the innovation system. The agency is also mandated to scout for and nurture innovative ideas from individuals, training institutions and the private sector.
National Research Fund (NRF): The National Research Fund is also established under Part VII of the Science, Technology and Innovation Act, 2013 to facilitate research for advancement of Science, Technology and Innovation. Under the law, the fund is required to be allocated two percent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product by the Treasury every financial year.
In the 2013/14 fiscal year, a budgetary allocation of Ksh. 398 million was allocated to the National Research Fund. Although in 2014/15 financial year, Ksh 397 million was allocated to the fund, it is deemed that in subsequent years, this figure will rise stupendously.
Technical and Vocational Education and Training Authority (TVETA): This is a State Corporation under the Ministry of Education Science and Technology. It is established under the TVET Act No. 44 of 2013. The general mandate of the TVETA is to promote access, equity, and relevant quality in technical, vocational education, and training by regulating, inspecting, registering, accrediting and licensing institutions and programs
TVET Funding Board (TVETFB): This board was established under the TVET Act 2012 to mobilize and manage financial resources for the purposes of technical, vocational education, and training. The board is expected to be operational this year.
Curriculum Development, Assessment and Certification Council (KCDSCC): This body was established under the TVET Act, 2012 as a body corporate to develop assess and certify competence-based curriculum in technical, vocational education, and training institutions. Three Technical universities, the Technical University of Kenya, Technical University Mombasa and Dedan Kimathi University of Science and Technology are also institutions under the State Department of Science and Technology.